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Full text of "Annual report of the Westboro School Department"

ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



SCHOOL DEPARTMENT 




1932 



Westborough, Mass. 

CHRONOTYPE PRINTING COMPANY 

1933 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/annualreportofwe1932west 



ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



SCHOOL DEPARTMENT 




1932 



Westborough, Mass. 

CHRONOTYPE PRINTING COMPANY 

1933 



3 



Report of School Committee 



ORGANIZATION 

Dr. Charles H. Reed, Chairman - - Term expires 1933 

George L. Mead, Secretary - - Term expires 1935 

Leslie B. Coombs - Term expires 1934 

Regular meetings of the Committee are held the first 

Wednesday of each month at 8.00 P. M. 

EXECUTIVE OFFICERS 

J. Harding Armstrong - Superintendent 

Office, High School. Tel. 400 
Office Hours: Monday, Wednesday and Thursday, 3 to 4 P. M. 

Residence, 11 Church St. Tel. 446 
Dr. Walter F. Mahoney - School Physician 

Residence, 41 South St. Tel. 122 

Mrs. Violet B. Wynott - School Nurse 

James H. Higgins — Attendance Officer and Census Enumerator 

Residence, 21 Beach St. Tel. 365-3 

SCHOOL CALENDAR — 1932 

Winter term, Jan. 3-Feb. J 7; Spring terms, Feb. 27-April 14 

and April 24-June 23; Fall term, Sept. 6-Dec. 22 
School Holidays — New Year's Day, Good Friday, Memorial 
Day, Columbus Day, Armistice Day, Thanksgiving 
Day and the following Friday 
NO SCHOOL SIGNAL 
The signal is 1-2-3 on the Westboro fire alarm, given three 
times. When sounded at 7.30 it means no morning or after- 
noon session for all schools; at 8 o'clock, no morning session 
for first six grades only; at 11.30, no afternoon session for all 
schools; at 11.45, no afternoon session for first six grades only. 



Westborough, Mass., Dec. 31, 1932. 
To the Residents op Westborough: 

The School Committee has the honor to submit the fol- 
lowing report for the year ending December 31, 1932. 

HEALTH 

It is gratifying to be able to report concerning the in- 
valuable progress accomplished in the health of the children 
of the town. This result has been secured through a reali- 
zation, by our people, that progress in mental education is 
governed by the physical condition of the child. For many 
generations the subject of health was not considered of suf- 
ficient importance in relation to mental education to merit 
a place in the curriculum, but today it occupies the 
first place. 

The fact is indisputable that a child must enjoy normal 
health in order to hold the pace with healthy children 
through the long strain of from five to eight hours per day 
for forty weeks, over a period of twelve years during which 
time every minute is utilized. Those who have labored in 
the mental education of your children need not be told of 
the mental sufferngs in child-life 'where disease, defects, de- 
formities, and violations of simple rules of health have been 
the cause. The people of Westborough have come to the 
full realization that time and money expended on the un- 
fortunate, afflicted child who is expending his energy to the 
last ounce in a vain attempt to keep up with his fellow stu- 
dents, is not wasted nor is it a "FAD." 

Each and every child in your town, whether of school 
age or not, is now offered the benefits of a sound body 
which the combined forces of our physicians, nurses, Wor- 
cester County hospitals, local dentists, food authorities, 
milk producers, local organizations and individuals are 
making possible by giving of their time, money and sup- 
port. Ever watchful of the health of your child during 



the sessions are the nurse and the teachers. At stated in- 
tervals a searching examination is made for abnormal con- 
ditions such as defects, deformities, infections or improper 
diet. When any is found the latest methods are utilized 
in correcting it and the child is trained to use these meth- 
ods. Prizes are offered to keep up the interest and com- 
petition is strong. A record of each child is carefully kept 
showing the progress of his development, and these records 
are filed and open to public inspection. 

It has been the aim of your committee to give to every 
Westborough child an opportunity to acquire an equal 
mental education, and this result can only be accomplished 
by building up the unsound bodies in order that they may 
compete with the strong and healthy. The physical wel- 
fare of your children is at all times under the direction of 
the School Physician who is ready and willing to give 
counsel, advice, or information. 

It is hoped that our people will not confound our health 
measures or physical instruction with competitive athletics, 
for the former only fits the child for the latter. Physical 
education is participated in by every child in our schools, 
while athletics require but five, nine or eleven for a short 
time only. 

BUILDINGS 

Each of your school buildings is at present in perfect re- 
pair. There is no economic reason why they should not be 
kept so. To preserve your high school it should receive a 
coat of paint inside and out during the next two years. 

During the past year the walls and ceilings of the Eli 
Whitney building have been renewed, but the burlap finish 
on the stairways must be treated the present year, or the 
town will be under great expense to replace it. The heat- 
ing and ventilating plant is working to perfection, as are 
the new toilets. Live steam is forced into the hot air before 
it enters the classrooms, which results in a humidified at- 



mosphere promoting health, vigor and comfort when the 
thermostats are set as low as 68 degrees. 

The Harvey building has received repairs that have ex- 
cluded rain-water, which has been seeping in since the 
building was erected fifty years ago. The heating plant 
now requires one-third less fuel, by reason of utilizing 
present day methods of heating and ventilating. 

Your Committee takes pleasure in complimenting the 
artisans of the town for the interest shown and for the high 
quality of workmanship exhibited in the preservation of 
our buildings. 

Following is the report of the Superintendent and a 
summary of the expenditures for the year 1932, a detailed 
statement of which may be found in the report of the 
Town Accountant. 



FINANCIAL SUMMARY FOR 193 2 

Appropriation for 1932 $64,500 00 

EXPENDITURES 

Expenses of School Committee 394 00 

Supt. of Schools — Salary and other 

expenses 2,176 82 

Salaries: 

Supervisors $1,500 00 

Principals 2,200 00 

Teachers — High School 15,8 76 3 7 
Teachers — Elementary 24,009 15 

43,585 52 

Textbooks: 

High School $563 73 

Elementary 478 30 

1,042 03 



Stationery and Supplies: 

High School $572 71 

Elementary 758 27 

1,330 98 

Janitors: 

High School $1,670 64 

Elementary 2,474 72 

4,145 36 

Fuel: 

High School $539 01 

Elementary 1,101 38 

1,640 39 

Miscellaneous Operating 

Expenses: 

High School $667 65 

Elementary 732 47 

1,400 12 

Repairs: 

High School $226 16 

Elementary 721 53 

947 69 

Library 61 00 

Health 863 36 

Transportation 6,109 60 

Tuition 79 05 

Miscellaneous 110 00 

New Equipment 603 18 



Total Expenditures $64,489 10 

CREDITS FOR 1932 

From State — on account of teachers' salaries $7,266 66 

Tuition — Mass. Training School pupils 163 85 

Tuition — Non-residents 106 64 

Reunds 85 77 

Rentals- — Auditorium and gymnasium 48 00 

Manual training receipts 41 80 

Miscellaneous— telephone, tickets, fines, etc 45 65 



$7,758 37 



8 

TRADE SCHOOL ACCOUNT 

Appropriation for 1932 $1,600 00 

Expended for tuition $1,555 08 

Balance, Dec. 31, 1932 44 92 

$1,600 00 

Reimbursed by the State 861 36 

Net cost of Trade School Tuition $738 64 

Total expenditures for schools $64,489 10 

State reimbursements, refunds and receipts paid 

to the Treasurer 7,758 37 

Net cost of the schools $56,730 73 

Respectfully submitted, 

CHARLES H. REED, Chairman. 
GEORGE L. MEAD, 
LESLIE B. COOMBS, 

The School Committee. 



Report of Superintendent of Schools 



To the Westborough School. Committee: 

As we survey the activities of our schools for the year 
1932 it is a satisfaction to find that despite a substantial 
reduction in our appropriation there has been no measur- 
able loss in the efficiency of the system. Because of the ex- 
cellent condition of the school plant and teaching equip- 
ment it has been possible to make the economies necessary 
to keep within the budget without limiting the school fa- 
cilities. The teachers and other employees of the depart- 
ment have cooperated heartily in an earnest attempt to 
eliminate waste and to carry on their work with the lowest 
possible expenditures. 

Further than this, the teachers volunteered to pay for 
substitutes employed during absences because of illness and 
from the funds contributed for this purpose paid out $216 
which would otherwise have been expended by the town. 
The teachers and janitors also gave a day's pay to the Un- 
employment Committee which was active during the spring. 
In addition the teachers raised a Relief Fund which was 
used by the School Nurse to assist families in need. These 
activities indicate clearly the helpful spirit which exists 
among the employees of the department and they are to be 
commended for giving aid so freely. 



10 

SCHOOL COSTS 

In these days of economic stress there has been a general 
attack on school expenditures and comparisons have been 
made with costs of an earlier period, indicating that schools 
are now very extravagantly managed. Very few persons 
take the trouble to study this problem carefully and conse- 
quently there is a great deal of misunderstanding regard- 
ing the actual conditions. 

There are many causes which have led to these increased 
expenditures, some of the most important of which are en- 
tirely beyond the control of the school authorities. Three 
of the most important factors are the following : — 

1. Depreciation of the dollar. 

2. Increased attendance. 

3. Improvements in Educational Service. 

The purchasing power of the dollar varies greatly at dif- 
ferent times and comparisons of costs must take this fact 
into account. Because of these fluctuations a dollar in 1930 
was worth only about 63% as much as it was worth in 1914. 
To put it another way, it cost about $1.59 in 1930 to buy 
as much as a dollar would buy inl914. In 1930 the ex- 
penditures for schools in Westboro was $68,141.16, with one 
exception the largest sum ever used. This is equivalent in 
actual value to $42,928.93 in 1914, which is $25,112.23 less 
than the amount expended. 

While Westboro has not had the great increase in en- 
rollment experienced by many communities there has been 
a growth in school membership from 719 in 1914 to 852 this 
year, a gain of 133 or 18%. However, most of this increase 
has been in the high school which has grown from 155 in 
1914 to 242, a gain of 87 or 56 %. 

This large growth of the high school is due to changed 
economic and social conditions which have made it im- 
perative for the school authorities to retain in the schools 
and so under its good influences many boys and girls who 
otherwise would be spending much of their time in places 
pf doubtful moral value. 



ii 

Most of the increase in the school expenditures the past 
few years has been made to provide proper educational fa- 
cilities for the training of this larger group of young people 
who are continuing through high school. 

In this connection it is of interest to note that during the 
past year working certificates were given to only 48 per- 
sons and that only two persons under 16 years of age are 
not attending school. 

Since 1914 there have been many improvements in the 
educational service rendered by the schools. These have 
come about for a variety of reasons, but among the most im- 
portant are the following: — 1. The establishment of high- 
er standards in all phases of education by the leaders of 
the profession. 2. The passage of various laws requiring 
the extension of school activities. 3. The provision of 
better buildings and other school facilities by the local com- 
munities. 4. The changing character of the school popu- 
lation, especially that of the high school. 

All these factors have materially influenced the develop- 
ment of the schools here in Westboro and have led to the 
improvements listed below. 

1. The number of pupils per teacher has been reduced. 

2. Standards of work in the various grades and subjects 
has been improved. 

3. A beautiful high school building has been erected and 
thoroughly equipped. 

4. The old buildings still in use have had several of their 
important facilities recently modernized. 

5. A greater variety of instructional material has been 
provided the teachers and pupils. 

6. New and more effective methods of instruction have 
been adopted. 

7. A special class has been established for the individual 
instruction of retarded children. 

8. New academic courses have been added to the Junior 
and Senior High School programs. 



12 

9. Manual Arts and Household Arts have been estab- 
lished in the Junior and Senior High Schools. 

10. Health and safety education have become an im- 
portant part of the elementary school program. 

11. A half-time school nurse has been employed. 

12. A well-rounded program of physical education for 
all pupils has been established. 

13. Valuable student activities outside the regular high 
school program are carried on with the assistance of the 
teachers. 

14. Opportunity for study under supervision has been 
given high school pupils by the addition of a 7th period at 
the close of the regular session. 

That this expansion in the school program has been made 
with a reasonable expenditure of money is indicated by 
comparisons of the cost of education in Westborough with 
that in the state as a whole and in neighboring communities. 

The first table shows a comparison of our per pupil ex- 
penditures for the school year 1931-32 by major divisions 
of the school budget with the average per-pupil expendi- 
tures made by the 83 towns of over 5000 population and 
the 108 towns of less than 5000 population which have 
high schools of their own. 

Average Average 
Towns over Towns under 
Westboro 5000 5000 

General Control $3.28 $3.22 $4.63 

Salaries 53.58 63.69 56.30 

Textbooks and Supplies 2.95 4.36 4.47 

Operation — Fuel, Janitors ... 8.88 10.22 11.15 

Repairs 2.20 2.90 2.89 

Libraries 24 .15 .08 

Health 1.14 1.51 1.69 

Transportation 7.80 3.36 10.58 

Tuition 02 .55 .42 

Miscellaneous 22 .77 1.02 

A comparison of these figures indicates clearly that almost 
all of our expenditures are below the average of the other 
190 towns. 



13 



COMPARISON OF PER PUPIL COSTS FOR SCHOOL YEAR 

1931-32 



Neighboring Towns 



Towns with Same 
School Membership 



Name 


Memb. 


Cost 


Name Memb. 


Cost 


Westboro 


815 


$80.35 


Westboro 815 


$80.35 


Grafton 


1,248 


79.77 


Spencer 832 


75.84 


Shrewsbury 


1,509 


86.15 


Deerfield 818 


84.76 


Northboro 


412 


80.80 


Canton 814 


109.88 


Southboro 


400 


112.22 


Holden 825 


90.99 


Hopkinton 


538 


74.07 


Lee 793 


78.89 


Ashland 


503 


89.01 


Oxford -803 


75.58 


Upton 


362 


69.53 


Barre 867 


79.06 


Marlboro 


2,249 


84.96 


Foxboro 880 


81.99 


Westboro No. 


4 


Westboro No. 


5 



Towns of Same Property Valuation 



Name 


Valuation 


Memb. 


Cost 


Westboro 


$4,664,132 


815 


$80.35 


Spencer 


4,364,242 


832 


75.84 


Deerfield 


4,304,898 


818 


84.76 


Kingston 


4,477,803 


504 


79.50 


Wilmington 


4,333,909 


1,039 


66.61 


Swansea 


4,451,966 


724 


81.29 


East Bridgewater 


4,771,909 


801 


85.53 


Provincetown 


4,095,065 


728 


87.79 


Hopedale 


4,141,819 


618 


83.41 


Westboro No. 4 







Of the 22 different towns listed in these three tables, 
thirteen have a per pupil expenditure greater than $80.35, 
the Westboro cost, and nine expend less per pupil. Not 
one of these nine towns has a modern high school building 
like ours. Those towns which have high school facilities 
comparable to those furnished here in Westboro all have 
a per pupil cost considerably larger than ours. 

Surely these facts make it evident that the expansion of 
our schools has been carried on in a reasonably economical 



14 

maimer and that our boys and girls are receiving more for 
every school dollar expended than are those residing in 
most towns which may be properly compared with West- 
boro. 

Another phase of this problem to which little attention 
is given is the cost of instruction in the various high school 
subjects. Many people in the community are of the im- 
pression that some of the newer subjects which have been 
introduced are more expensive than the older subjects, but 
such is not the case. The per pupil cost is determined 
largely by the number of pupils in the various classes and 
while these vary in size from year to year the figures in the 
following table based on the classes as organized at the 
opening of school in September are a fair basis for a com- 
parison of the cost of instruction which is by far the larg- 
est factor in the total school expenditure. 

PER PUPIL COSTS OF DIFFERENT SUBJECTS 



Subject No. 


Pupils Cost 


Subject No. 


Pupils 


> Cost 


English I 


76 


$10.52 


Plane Geom. 


17 


$12.99 


English II 


66 


8.08 


Gen. Math. 


15 


14.72 


English III 


50 


10.66 


Com. Arith. 


27 


8.18 


English IV 


46 


11.59 


Com. Geog. 


40 


6.66 


Latin I 


19 


14.00 


Bookkeeping 


31 


8.87 


Latin II 


9 


29.55 


Stenography I 


22 


12.50 


Latin III 


4 


66.66 


Stenography II 


17 


16.18 


French I 


49 


11.55 


Typewriting I * 


31 


15.19 


French II 


23 


11.59 


Typewriting II 


17 


16.18 


French III 


11 


24.24 


Com. Law 


20 


13.33 


Anc. History- 


37 


6.08 


Man. Training 


98 


7.78 


Mod. History 


36 


7.64 


Mech. Drawing 


17 


14.94 


U. S. History 


46 


11.58 


Cooking 


91 


6.42 


Civics 


29 


8.76 


Sewing 


76 


4.65 


Gen. Science 


69 


7.12 


Ad. Mech. Draw 


. 11 


23.10 


Biology 


34 


7.84 


Physical Ed. 


840 


4.00 


Chemistry 


43 


12.40 


Music 


607 


1.23 


Algebra I 


38 


5.81 


Drawing 


607 


1.23 


Algebra II 


8 


27.60 









15 

THE CARDINAL OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATION 

While the foregoing presentation of the problem of the 
costs of education shows that our expenditures are reason- 
able as compared with other communities throughout the 
state, yet the thoughtful citizen realizes that there has been 
a considerable increase in the total cost of the schools and 
he has the right to know what the town is getting in return 
for this additional expenditure. 

It was with the thought of picturing to the citizens in a 
concrete way the expansion of our educational services that 
the Junior-Senior High School teachers prepared a special 
program for American Education Week in which was 
demonstrated the wide variety of activities going on in the 
school. This demonstration was based on the material pre- 
sented in the following pages. 

Within the past 25 years there has been a great change 
in the scope of public education. The number of children 
in the high schools has increased very greatly and to meet 
the needs and abilities of this larger group the program of 
studies has been gradually extended. 

At the same time educational leaders have come to realize 
the necessity of making more definite the objectives of the 
schools. After a careful analysis of the conditions of mod- 
ern society over a period of years a group of objectives has 
been set up which has now become accepted throughout the 
country and it is acknowledged that no school system can 
adequately train its pupils to meet life today unless it con- 
sciously attempts to attain these objectives. 

A statement of these objectives and the activities through 
which they are being carried out, particularly in the Jr.-Sr. 
High School, should aid parents and ctizens in obtaining a 
broader view of the work of the Westboro schools. 

1. Health 

One of the most important objectives of the modern 



16 

school is the training which it gives in the fundamental life 
factor of Health. 

The most important things which our schools are doing 
are as follows: — 

Annual physical examinations by the school physician. 

Follow up work by the school nurse to secure the correc- 
tion of defects discovered by the physical examination. 

First aid service for emergency cases such as bruises, 
cuts, etc., incurred during the school session. 

Protection against the spread of contagious disease by 
control of suspicious cases through the school nurse and 
the doctor. 

Special attention to undernourished children by provid- 
ing milk and through visits of the school nurse to the homes. 

Definite instruction regarding food values, proper diet 
and similar problems through the classes in science and 
household arts. 

Instruction and training in proper health habits — es- 
pecially as regards food, cleanliness, exercise, and rest. 

Development of physical control and skill by regular 
class instruction in physical activities for all pupils. 

Special training in a wide variety of athletic sports for 
those girls and boys desiring to participate. 

2. Worthy Home Membership 

The home is one of the fundamental units of society and 
our school trains the boys and girls to understand the 
value of a home and to appreciate their responsibility in 
connection with it. 

The following activities are related to this purpose of 
the school: — 

Lessons in the civics course on the home as a social in- 
stitution. 

Instruction in house planning, furnishing, and decora- 
tion in the household arts courses. 



17 

Teaching of fundamentals of cooking and sewing to all 
the girls in the school. 

Through the shop work, training of all the boys in the 
proper use of tools so that they are able to make home re- 
pairs. 

Development through the work in drawing of an appre- 
ciation of color, proportion and beauty as essential factors 
in a home. 

Courses in science which emphasize the scientific facts 
connected with the equipment and utensils used in a mod- 
ern home. 

Teaching of the importance of thrift, the keeping of 
simple accounts, and the chief economic principles, all of 
which are fundamental factors in home life. 

3. Mastery of the Tools, Technics and 
Spirit of Learning 

With the addition of many new activities to the pro- 
gram of the modern school this still remains one of its 
basic functions. 

That it is today the center of our school life is evidenced 
by these facts. 

Every week in the Jr.-Sr. High program are held the 
following classes in which pupils are being trained in the 
fundamentals of the various subjects. 

Mathematics 25 English 29 Penmanship 7 

Foreign Languages 7 Science 5 

History and Civics 17 

Pupils are given training in the best methods of study 
and the use of reference books of all kinds. 

Development of skill in clear, logical thinking is part 
of the training in all classes. 

Insistence upon the use of correct spoken and written 
English is emphasized throughout the school. 

Thorough training is given in those fundamentals re- 



18 

quired for admission to college, which made it possible for 
nine members of the Class of 1932 to enter seven different 
colleges this fall without examinations. 

4. Vocational and Economic Effectiveness 

The school recognizes that it must give its pupils train- 
ing which will assist them in making a wise choice of a vo- 
cation and also give them an opportunity to develop some 
of the fundamental skills needed for the chosen occupation. 

It is accomplishing these two objects in a variety of ways. 

All 8th grade pupils have one lesson a week in Voca- 
tions, a study of the chief occupations and the abilities and 
training required for success in each. 

The principal holds individual and group conferences 
with many pupils, particularly seniors, to assist them in 
making vocational choices. 

The selection of courses is carefully supervised to be 
sure that each pupil is taking the subjects best suited to 
his needs. 

In the following subjects the pupils are given definite 
training in skills necessary for vocational success : 

Commercial — Stenography and typewriting — 2 years 
each. Bookkeeping. 

Manual — Woodworking and mechanical drawing. Cook- 
ing and Sewing. Freehand drawing. 

5. Faithful Citizenship 

The duties of citizenship must be assumed by all of our 
pupils, hence the school must give such training as is need- 
ed to fit them for these responsibilities. In our school we 
are attempting to do this through the following means: — 

Through the study of history the pupils gain a knowledge 
of the conditions under which our country was formed and 
has developed. 

Courses in civics teach the forms of our government — 



19 

federal, state and local and especially emphasize the duties 
of citizenship. 

Courses in science, mathematics and English present sub- 
ject matter which has a direct bearing on efficient citizen- 
ship. 

Through the life of the school the pupils learn to work 
with others under the guidance of competent leaders and 
so develop the spirit of cooperation. 

The various school organizations give the pupils oppor- 
tunity to develop qualities of leadership and to acquire 
skill in planning and executing a wide variety of activities. 

The discipline of the school is handled in such a way as 
to train the pupils in self-reliance and self-control under 
all conditions, making the conduct choices the result of 
personal decisions rather than forced from above, thus 
developing the spirit of true citizenship. 

Respect for personal and property rights is inculcated 
through definite instruction and individual experiences. 

Development of a high standard of school citizenship as 
evidenced by the present condition of our school building 
after six years of use. 

6. Wise Use of Leisure Time 

Under present conditions the proper use of leisure time 
is an important factor in the life of every citizen. The 
program of the school presents many opportunities for de- 
veloping permanent interests which will be the basis for 
leisure time activities. 

All pupils are taught to appreciate good literature and 
through a plan for required reading are encouraged to de- 
velop a permanent interest in reading. 

Through the activities of the physical education depart- 
ment the pupils gain skill and interest in all sorts of games 
which are the basis for healthful reereation in later life. 

Pupils having special ability along artistic lines are en- 



20 

couraged through the drawing classes to develop their skill 
as a means of making good use of leisure hours. 

The school orchestra and special classes in instrumental 
music aid the pupils to develop skill in the use of musical 
instruments and encourage a permanent interest in play- 
ing them. 

The lessons in music appreciation given as part of the 
instruction in music train the pupils to recognize good 
music and seek to develop a lasting interest in it as a 
recreational factor. 

7. Ethical Character 

The highest outcome of all education is the qualities of 
character which it helps its pupils to develop. Much of 
this work is done indirectly, yet with all good teachers it 
is a conscious objective no matter what subject is being 
taught. 

This training is being given in a variety of ways. 

High standards of conduct in all phases of school life are 
set up and maintained by the school faculty. 

Through the study of literary and historical characters 
elements of character resulting in success or failure and 
in right or wrong conduct are discussed in the English 
and history classes. 

Problems of conduct are frequently presented at the 
school assemblies and sometimes furnish the basis for class 
consideration. 

Conferences by the teachers and principal with pupils 
who have committed disciplinary offences are effective in 
aiding them to overcome weaknesses of character. 

Certain qualities of character are developed by giving 
pupils an opportunity to participate in the management 
of the school and its various activities. 

Such fundamental qualities of character as honesty, 
obedience, ambition, loyalty, perseverance and purity are 
constantly emphasized in all school relationships. 



21 

SPECIAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS 

The work of the schools has been carried on with its 
usual effectiveness and a brief statement of some of the 
special accomplishments should be of interest. 

Special recognition was given to the Washington Bi- 
centennial Celebration by public programs and class work. 
In February an excellent portrayal of the chief events in 
Washington's life was given by the Junior High School 
pupils in the form of a cantata accompanied by a series of 
Washington tableaux. As a combined history and art pro- 
ject the 7th and 8th grade pupils made bicentennial book- 
lets which were most interesting. The graduation pro- 
gram of the! senior class was based on Washington's career 
and its presentation was well received. 

American Education Week a greater effort than usual 
was made to bring the parents and citizens in touch with 
the schools. The usual Eli Whitney evening session was 
held and at the high school the special program already 
described was presented. One afternoon the Teachers' 
Club gave a reception and tea to the parents and citizens 
at which time they had an opportunity to meet the teachers 
and to inspect the drawings and the other school work 
which had been placed on exhibition. This event was 
largely attended and proved very successful in every way. 
All pupils collected their school papers over a period of 
several weeks and put them together in booklets which 
were taken home for the inspection of the parents. Special 
material dealing with the relation of parents to the schools 
was prepared and sent to the homes. 

The transportation equipment for the schools has been 
put on the highest possible basis by the purchase of new 
school busses by all the men holding contracts. These con- 
form to the new state requirements and furnish our pupils 
adequate and comfortable facilities at a reasonable cost. 
The men are to be commended for their cooperation with 



22 

the committee in the improvement of this service which is 
now second to none. 

ECONOMIES 

At the annual town meeting the amount appropriated 
for schools was $4,000 less than the sum which had been 
appropriated the two previous years, or a reduction of 
nearly 6%. To meet this situation the budget was ad- 
justed at once and by careful expenditure of all funds the 
year has been finished with a small balance. Considerable 
was saved from the amount appropriated for salaries by 
discontinuing in September the services of a part time 
teacher in the high school who was transferred to the Eli 
Whitney School to take the place of a teacher who re- 
signed, and also by the action of the teachers in assuming 
the responsibility for the payment of substitutes. Adjust- 
ments in the bus routes at the opening of school in Sep- 
tember also effected important savings. However, the 
largest amounts were saved by reducing the expenditures 
for supplies, fuel, operation expenses, repairs and new 
equipment. The following figures indicate clearly the ef- 
fectiveness of this policy. 

1930 1931 1932 Savings 

Stationery and 

Supplies $2,104.78 $2,181.24 $1,305.06 $876.18 

Fuel 2,118.34 2,011,72 1,640.39 371.33 

Operating Ex- 
penses 2,100.53 1,964.83 1,539.29 425.54 

Repairs and New 

Equipment 3,077.13 2,817.78 1,581.79 1,235.99 



$2,909.04 



Realizing that because of the continuance of unfavorable 
business conditions further reductions in the school appro- 
priation is imperative the budget has been prepared earlier 



23 

than usual in order that the necessary adjustments may be 
made with the opening of the fiscal year 1933. With the 
cooperation of the employees who have signified their will- 
ingness to contribute 10% of their salaries to the town, it 
is expected that the budget for next year can be reduced 
about $7,000, which will make the total appropriation 16% 
less than that of 1931. 

To carry on the school work effectively with this large 
decrease in the available funds will be very difficult and 
further reductions will seriously interfere with the present 
program. We have reached the point where additional 
economies will make it necessary to reduce the educational 
opportunities now offered our boys and girls and such ac- 
tion would not only be unjust to them but would in the 
long run be a serious loss to the community as a whole. 

It is earnestly hoped that all citizens, but especially the 
parents, will give the problem of school expenditures their 
most earnest consideration and cooperate with the school 
officials in maintaining our school system on its present 
high level of efficiency. The point of view with which we 
should face this problem was most effectively stated by 
President Hoover in a recent address. 

"Our nation faces the acute responsibility of providing 
a right-of-way for the American child. In spite of our 
economic, social and government difficulties, our future 
citizens must be built up now. We may delay other prob- 
lems, but we cannot delay the day-to-day care and instruc- 
tion of our children. 

' ' Our government forces have grown unevenly and along 
with our astounding national development. We are now 
forced to make decisions on the merits of the various ex- 
penditures. But in the rigid governmental economies that 
are requisite everywhere we must not encroach upon the 
schools or reduce the opportunity of the child through the 
school to develop adequate citizenship. There is no safety 
for our republic without the education of our youth. That 



24 

is the first charge upon all citizens and local governments/ ' 
For the hearty cooperation of your committee and all 
the employees of the department in the successful solution 
of the problems of the past year I am most appreciative. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. HARDING ARMSTRONG. 



25 



Report of School Physician 



In September 1932 the usual physical examination of 
all the pupils- in the Westboro schools was conducted. The 
outstanding feature in this examination revealed the fact 
that the dental work performed on the pupils was evidently 
neglected. This of course should be rectified during the com- 
ing year if possible. The tonsil and adenoid cases, how- 
ever, had been given proper attention. 

During the year we were confronted with an epidemic 
of Scarlet Fever. Thirty-four cases developed in a short 
period of time, but the epidemic was soon arrested by daily 
examinations of all pupils and in view of the fact that we 
had a total school population of 826 children, these thirty- 
four cases represented a small percentage developing the 
disease. 

I feel the average taxpayer does not realize the amount 
of work carried on each school year by the medical depart- 
ment. For instance, 205 children received the Schick Test 
against diphtheria, which means that 615 injections of 
toxin-antitoxin were given over a period of three weeks. 

There were 412 house calls made 1 by the school nurse and 
793 letters sent to parents notifying them as to defects 
found in their children. The results of these examinations 
are on record in our card system covering a period of years 
and are very satisfactory in most cases. 

I still maintain the pupils of the Westboro schools are 
at present in as good physical condition as can be found 
in any other public schools. 

WALTER F. MAHONEY, 

School Physician. 



Report of School Nurse 



The usual health work was carried on during 1932. In 
September each pupil received a thorough physical ex- 
amination, all defects were recorded and notices of these 
were sent home to be followed by home visits. There is 
much dental work to be done, and many enlarged or dis- 
eased tonsils which should be removed, as they retard the 
health and ability of the child to do his best work at school 
or elsewhere. 

Nutrition work was followed up along different lines, 
underweight children receiving monthly weighing and 
talks. Nutrition talks were given in the classrooms. Dr. 
Zacks, from the State Department of Public Health, ex- 
amined several children who are being closely watched fol- 
lowing the Chadwick Clinic for tuberculosis held at the 
High School several years ago. Six children had X-ray 
pictures taken at the Milford hospital and all were found to 
be improving. Under the auspices of the Dairy Council 
all grades were given a nutrition talk, demonstrated by 
lantern slide pictures on the subject. The Kiwanis Club 
supplied many with the mid-morning milk throughout the 
school year as before, the milk being given to those under- 
nourished and much improvement was noticed in the ma- 
jority of these pupils. Miss Mildred Thomas, from the 
County Extension Service, gave a talk on nutrition to all 
teachers in December, which will be followed by four 



27 

demonstration and nutrition talks for parents to be given 
in the High School Domestic Science room. 

Classrooms were watched for colds and contagious dis- 
eases and everything possible was done to prevent the 
spread of these, each teacher reporting any suspicious cases. 
Many homes were visited where children were absent three 
or more days, watching out for contagious disease or for 
any other cause keeping pupils from attending school regu- 
larly. Despite all the watchfulness of the School Physician, 
the Nurse and the teachers an unusually large number of 
cases of scarlet fever developed here in town during the 
first part of March. Fortunately most of the cases were 
light, but the Board of Health deemed it wise to close the 
elementary schools and as a result the first six grades lost 
seven and one-half days. 

There was a very good response to the protection of chil- 
dren against diphtheria, 205 pupils receiving the immuni- 
zation treatment and 110 pupils immunized in 1931 being 
tested, six of these being given further treatment. 

A pre-school clinic was held in June for all pupils en- 
tering school the following September. Thirty-seven chil- 
dren received a physical examination and were weighed 
and measured to determine their normal weight. All de- 
fects were recorded. As a result of this, through the Child 
Health Committee, practically all necessary dental work 
was eared for and many enlarged or diseased tonsils were 
removed. Advice was given and many visits made. 

Child Health Day was celebrated as usual in June at 
Forbes Field to demonstrate the health and physical work 
carried on throughout the year. In connection with the 
program 188 Teeth Tags, 423 Improvement Tags and 95 
Physically Fit Tags were given to children who had ful- 
filled the requirements set by the state. 

VIOLET B. WYNOTT, 

School Nurse. 



28 



Report of Department of Physical Education 



The year 1932 with its necessary program of rigid econ- 
omy and retrenchment has passed. The effect upon the 
department of Physical Education, while noticeable, has 
by no means been marked. By wise and careful admini- 
stration our program has been carried on with practically 
no ill effects. We have definitely curtailed expenditures 
in our department. Less equipment has been purchased, 
smaller guarantees (where guarantees were necessary) were 
paid, and officials' fees have been reduced considerably. 

We have continued to follow the policy of mass instruc- 
tion and participation, against the old idea of a specialized 
selected group receiving the benefits and enjoyments of our 
Physical Education program. We are heartily in accord 
with the State Department of Physical Education which 
maintains that all so called Varsity teams should be the cul- 
mination of athletics and competition for all students. 

Gang, group, or team consciousness is inherent in the 
psychology of the adolescent boy and girl. Each one in- 
stinctively aspires to be a member of an organization, par- 
ticularly in athletic associations. Therefore it would be 
most unjust to this mass of boys and girls to segregate a 
special varsity group to receive the benefits of special train- 
ing and equipment. Our program calls for group or team 
participation for every student in the Junior-Senior High 
School building. 



29 

It is to be regretted that the inestimable benefits of group 
play, such as cooperation, sportsmanship, leadership, loy- 
alty, subordination of self to a cause, and many others, 
cannot be measured in a mathematical manner. However, 
we do know that dividends in better citizenship are the re- 
sults of an all-extensive program. 

Recently I conducted a questionaire among the Junior 
and Senior High School boys relative to the advisability of 
continuing definite team competition in gymnasium class 
work. There was no compulsion, the students being not 
even required to sign their names. From more than 200 
questionaires turned. in, not a single boy wished to discon- 
tinue team games for all. 

The work at the Eli "Whitney School has been improved 
greatly by the removal of many dangerous projecting stones 
on the playing surface. This project was carried on and 
financed by the Unemployment Committee. In addition, 
the installation of six climbing ropes and a horizontal lad- 
der has greatly relieved the congestion of large classes in 
the small gymnasium. The value of hanging exercises is 
recognized by all authorities on posture work. The reno- 
vation of the toilet facilities in the graded schools has been 
a progressive step toward health and sanitation. 

The Westboro Kiwanis Club has made a start toward 
reconditioning the old high school grounds as a play field 
for girls and younger boys. Through the cooperation of/ 
the Highway Department and the Unemployment Commits 
tee several dangerous stones have been removed and some 
grading started. Soccer goals and volley ball posts have 
been installed. Already the field has been used extensive- 
ly. The Community Tennis Courts were also used by the 
High School girls for a fall tennis tournament. It is 
planned to conduct annually a girls' tournament both in 
the fall and spring. About 25 girls participated. 

During the 1932 basketball season the girls' program was 
enlarged somewhat. Representative class teams played five 



30 

games with class teams from other schools. Then at the 
close of the season a girls' varsity team was picked and 
two games with Northboro High were played. Under the 
direction of Miss Stead a school pyramid team of 25 girls 
staged several exhibitions, locally and in Worcester at the 
South High School exhibition of the Worcester County Wo- 
man's Physical Education Club. 

A new plan for financing the high school athletics was 
tried out, namely a two day "Fun Frolic." This was a 
carnival type of entertainment consisting of a movie show, 
vaudeville acts, puppet shows, circus and sideshows and 
was climaxed with a dance. The "Frolic" netted over 
$200.00. 

HAROLD F. FISHER, 

Director of Physical Education. 



31 



Report of Music Supervisor 



The music department, in its material and plans, aims to 
realize the ideals of leading authorities in music and peda- 
gogy. The books used contain song material of the best to 
be found in the libraries of Europe and America, together 
with original songs by the foremost living composers. A 
great deal of attention is given to the singing of Folk Songs. 

In the lower grades the lessons begin with the singing of 
songs whose rhythm and words appeal to little children. 
New interval work is presented in three ways; — by repre- 
sentation, by imitation and by dictation. By the end of 
the second year the children are ready to handle books. 
The work of the intermediate grades is varied and interest- 
ing, because it is during this period that the more; intricate 
types of time are presented. Two and three part singing 
always interest the children. Appreciation of music is 
never lost sight of. Sweetness and clarity of tone are ever 
sought. 

The classes have contributed as usual to the special pro- 
grams this year. In February, the eighth grade chorus 
sang the cantata ' ' George Washington, ' ' in connection with 
the general celebration by the schools. Music was furnished 
for graduation by the senior class itself. A group of 
twenty-three pupils, largely freshmen, is enjoying a sing- 
ing period on Friday afternoons this year. This group 
sang at a Woman's Club meeting in November. 

The cooperation on the part of the teachers is, as form- 
erly, greatly appreciated. 

FRANCES LOUISE ANDREWS, 

Music Supervisor. 



32 



Report of Drawing Supervisor 



The drawing this year follows the same aims and out- 
lines as the year preceding. There has been no change of 
schedule. Class numbers remain about the same, but ma- 
terials have been more limited. The only possible advance- 
ment must be in quantity and technique of production. 

Contacts have been made for outside exhibitions by 
which the work of both pupils and professionals may be 
brought in and it is hoped these opportunities can be fol- 
lowed through. These exhibits bring in changes and de- 
velopment of ideas in a smaller way along the lines of 
museums in the cities. At present we are in touch with 
an international group centered in Chicago who are bring- 
ing in products of foreign schools in art work. Last year 
an exhibition from schools in Prague and Czecho-slovakia 
was loaned me. This year oil paintings by Gordon Harris, 
a newly heard from Providence painter, were shown in the 
high school art corner. These outside contacts still have 
to be personal loans. 

Progress must be slow in the daily work because of the 
limitationas of material and equipment. When economies 
are not so necessary we can begin to do something more 
outstanding, as there is considerable ability and talent to 
be developed. 

The town in general could build up a very interesting 
arts and crafts group of people in and out of school circles. 



33 

A group of this sort would reflect back on the schools and 
would be of great benefit. 

( During American Education Week an exhibit of the 
work done in all the grades was shown in the high school 
and was viewed with interest by many visitors. 

It is hoped we may not be seriously retarded in our art 
work even if advancement must slow up a little for the 
time being. 

DOROTHY MARSHALL, 

Drawing Supervisor. 



u 



School Statistics 



MEMBERSHIP BY GRADES FOR MONTH ENDING 
DEC. 31, 1932 

Senior High School 

Boys Girls Totals 

Seniors 18 28 46 

Juniors 26 20 46 

Sophomores 32 28 60 

Freshmen 40 40 80 

Post Graduates 4 6 10 

Totals — Senior High School 120 122 242 

Junior High School 

Boys Girls Totals 

Grade 8 43 35 78 

Grade 7 37 42 79 

Totals — Junior High School 80 77 157 

Elementary Schools 

Boys Girls Totals 

Grade 6 41 37 78 

Grade 5 30 37 67 

Grade 4 34 31 65 

Grade 3 40 39 79 

Grade 2 33 32 65 

Grade 1 48 39 87 

Special Class 10 2 12 

Totals — Elementary Schools 236 217 453 

Totals — All Schools 436 416 852 



35 

COMPARATIVE MEMBERSHIP TABLE 

December 31, 1922 750 

December 31, 1923 767 

December 31, 1924 793 

December 31, 1925 806 

December 31, 1926 831 

December 31, 1927 841 

December 31, 1928 852 

December 31, 1929 835 

December 31, 1930 848 

December 31, 1931 826 

December 31, 1932 852 

Increase over last year 26 

GROWTH IN SCHOOL MEMBERSHIP 1923-1932 

Senior High School — Increase 155 to 242 56% 

Junior High School — Increase 145 to 157 8.2% 

Elementary Schools — Decrease 467 to 453 3% 

SCHOOL EXPENDITURES FOR 193 2 

Salaries for Instruction 67.6% 

Transportation 9.4% 

Janitors 6.2% 

Supt. of Schools, salary and other expenses 3.3% 

Stationery and Supplies 2.1% 

Fuel , 2.5% 

Repairs 1.4% 

Miscellaneous Operating Expenses 2.1% 

Textbooks 1.5% 

Health 1.2% 

New Equipment 9% 

Miscellaneous Expenses 3 % 

Library 9 % 

School Committee Expenses 6% 



36 



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37 

DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS BYi SUBJECTS 

Fresh. Soph. Jr. Sr. P. G. Totals 

English i 75 65 51 47 238 

Foreign Languages: 

Latin 13 11 3 

French 39 26 

Sciences: 

General Science 67 

Biology 3 6 

Chemistry 18 

Social Sciences: 

U. S. History 5 

Modern History 1 35 

Community Civics . 3 1 

Ancient History 29 2 

Elem. Algebra 33 2 

Mathematics: 

Plane Geometry 15 1 

Advanced Algebra. 

General Math 11 2 2 

Commercial Subjects: 

Commercial Law... 16 

Commercial Arith 23 4 

Commercial Geog 3 2 6 

Bookkeeping 30 

Typewriting 20 

Stenography 16 

Household Arts 15 

Sewing 4 3 

Ad. Mech. Drawing ... 5 5 

Man. Tr. — Mech. Dr 11 1 

DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS BY COURSES 

Fresh Soph. 

College 30 15 

General 29 20 

Commercial 22 26 

Totals 81 61 51 47 240 



2 


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19 




84 
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37 


21 


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42 


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13 


5 


63 


20 


25 


94 


18 


17 


83 



School Census October 1 , 1 932 



Number of boys between the ages of 5 and 7 years 78 

Number of girls between the ages of 5 and 7 years 74 

Total 152 

Number of boys between the ages of 7 and 14 years 246 

Number of girls between the ages of 7 and 14 years 242 

Total 488 

Number of boys between the ages of 14 and 16 years... 7] 
Number of girls between the ages of 1 4 and 16 years ... 7 5 

Total 146 ( 

Number of boys between the ages of 5 and 16 years 3 95 

Number of girls between the ages of 5 and 16 years 391 



Total 786 

EMPLOYMENT CERTIFICATES 

Number of employment certificates issued. 4 

Number of persons to whom issued 4 

Number of educational certificates issued 45 

Number of persons to whom issued 44 

Total number of certificates issued 49 

Total number of persons receiving certificates 48 

ATTENDANCE OFFICER'S REPORT 

Number of cases of absence investigated 41 

Number of cases of truancy 14 



39 



Graduation Class of 1 932 



GRADUATION EXERCISES 

CLASS OF 1932 

WESTBOROUGH HIGH SCHOOL 

Thursday Evening, June 16, 1932, at 8 o'clock 

PROGRAM 

Processional — Hail, Columbia ! 

High School Orchestra 

The Program Theme 

Elmer Martin Bliss, Jr. 
Prologue 

Elizabeth Ingersoll Waite 

Recitation — The Character of Washington - Webster 
Roger Walton Bruce 

Essay — Life at Mt. Vernon 

Margaret Norma Kalenian 

Essay — Debunking Washington 

George Howard Allen 

Selection — The Father of His Country - - Bagley 
Senior Class Chorus and Orchestra 



40 

Essay— A Diary of 1789 

Elizabeth Atkinson Smith 

Recitation — Eulogy on George Washington - - Lee 
Howard Walker Fenno 

Recitation — Washington,the Nation Builder 

Edwin Markham 

Elizabeth Emma Jackson 
Epilogue 

Elizabeth Ingersoll Waite 

Presentation of Diplomas 

Dr. Charles H. Reed, Chairman, School Committee 

Awards — Washington and Franklin Medal 
American Legion Medals 
Woman's Club Scholarship 

Saxophone Solo 

Prentice Sherman Green 

Presentation of Gifts to the School 

Class of 1932 - Elmer Martin Bliss, Jr. 
The Oriel - - Elizabeth Emma Jackson 

Class Pledge 

Recessional Chorus — Hail, Columbia! 

Senior Class and Orchestra 



GRADUATES 



George Howard Allen Margaret Parks Judson 

Elmer Martin Bliss, Jr. Margaret Norma Kalenian 

Paul Dearing Blois Catherine Alice Kane 

Mary Catherine Brown Ralph Harold Knott 

Thomas Leo Brown Maurice W. Maddocks 

Roger Walton Bruce Herve Joseph Mailloux 
Yiola Elizabeth Chamberlain Marie Isabelle McCarthy 



41 



Carroll Vaugl^n DeWolf 
Edith C. Duckworth 
Betty Farrington Elliott 
Iva Jane Enman 
Howard Walker Fenno 
Harriett Marie Frazier 
Lucy Elvera Gates 
Margaret Adelaide Gleason 
Doris Leonora Granda 
Prentice Sherman Green 
Margaret Agnes Haley 
Daniel Francis Harrington 
Alma Lucile Harvey 
Gordon Luther Herring 
Kenneth Leaman Hulbert 
Robert Wendell Humes 
Elizabeth Emma Jackson 
Clayton Myron Johnson 

HONOR 



Henry Albert McMahon 

Edla Marian Mclntire 

Charles Henry Mead 

Edward Joseph Nelpi 

Florence Elizabeth Nichols 

Philip M. Robinson 

Iona Elizabeth Sanborn 

Elizabeth Atkinson Smith 

George Anthony Smith 

Helen Elizabeth Smith 

John Joseph Smith, Jr. 

, Jr. Robert William Trull 

Robert Bruce Tufts 

Edward Lewis Uhlman 

Elizabeth Ingersoll Waite 

Louise Frances Webster 

Barbara Lois Whitney 

Gladys Minerva Whitney 

STUDENTS 



(Those who have obtained A or B in at least 12 
of the 16 points required for graduation) 
First Honors — Howard Walker Fenno 

Second Honors — Margaret Norma Kalenian 

Third Honors — Roger Walton Bruce 
George Howard Allen Elizabeth Emma Jackson 

Viola Elizabeth Chamberlain Margaret Parks Judson 



Doris Leonora Granda 
Alma Lucile Harvey 
Kenneth Leaman Hulbert 
Robert Wendell Humes 



Edward Joseph Nelpi 

Elizabeth Atkinson Smith 

Helen Elizabeth Smith 

Elizabeth Ingersoll Waite 

CLASS OFFICERS 

Elmer Martin Bliss, Jr., President 

Elizabeth Emma Jackson, Vice President 

Elizabeth Ingersoll Waite, Secretary 

Edward Lewis Uhlman, Treasurer 



42 



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